Italics 101: Do You Need
© Marg McAlister
Next time you're tempted to use italics for emphasis... STOP!
"Why?" you ask. "Isn't it common to use italics to emphasize
Yes. It is.
But your job, as a skilled writer, is to know when to use italics
and when to avoid them. The problem is, it's so easy to use italics.
Just hit 'CTRL' and 'i', type the word (or words) in italics and hey
presto! the reader knows exactly how you want them to read your
words. Tap 'CTRL' and 'i' again when you've finished, and you're
back in normal text.
BUT - just because something is the easiest method, don't assume
that it is the best method.
Is there a better way to show emphasis than using italics? Read
1. How To Leave Your Reader Numb With
Let's leave the written word for a moment. Instead, we'll settle
down in a comfy cinema seat and watch an action movie. And hoo boy,
is this the action movie to end all action movies! It opens with an
explosion. We see people moaning with pain. We see people crying. We
see burning buildings... and then we see a car load of Obvious Bad
Guys racing away from the scene.
We cut to an office. In the office is The Good Guy, who is being
assigned to the case. Within five minutes we are aware that The Good
Guy is a maverick. No toeing the party line for Action Man. He's
going after the Bad Guys, and he's going after them now. He will
probably have a sidekick - either someone he hates, or someone who
usually does things by the book. (Hence: immediate and ongoing
The movie rolls on. Within ten minutes we are involved in a car
chase. In short, sharp grabs, we see cars being sideswiped, sidewalk
stalls flying through the air, people diving out of the way, a bus
smashing into a store window. The car chase is followed by the Bad
Guys shooting at the Good Guys. People are running. People are
threatening each other. Good Guy has a heated argument with
By the time the movie is twenty minutes old, we're exhausted. Not
only that, but we have become numb to violence, explosions, gunfire,
and threats. Because we haven't been given a chance to desensitize -
to relax - our defense mechanisms kick in. The outrageous has become
'normal' - so we are no longer affected. There is no suspense.
Suspense is anticipation, not action.
Let's leave the cinema. The movie has become kind of boring,
anyway. Let's read a book instead.
We open the book. We settle down to read.
A few pages into the first chapter, we become restive. For some
reason, we can't relax. It's like being... under attack.
We find ourselves frowning at the page. The book is nearly as
annoying as the movie: it seems that every paragraph has a word or
phrase in italics. Sometimes the whole paragraph is in italics. We
Angie was mad. Who did he think he was?
Mike Tyson? She had better things to do with her life than
put up with this!
"You'd better get yourself out here right now!" she
yelled. "This is just not on! Come on out here, Jack.
I've had enough!"
Reading text like this is like being poked every time the author
emphasizes a word:
Angie was mad. [POKE!] Who did he think he was? Mike Tyson?
[POKE!] She had better things to do with her life than put up with
this! [POKE!] "You'd better get yourself out here right now!"
[POKE!] she yelled. "This is just not on! [POKE!] Come on out here,
Jack. I've had enough!" [POKE!]
Pretty soon all that poking has the same effect as the movie with
too much action. The reader - in pure self-defense - becomes numb.
Before long, her attention wanders. It looks like it has just
been one of those days: first a boring movie, and then a boring
Oh well... better go and find something else to do...
Thud! The book is tossed aside.
2. How To Involve Your Reader
To involve your reader, find an alternative to italics for
emphasis. Of course, that will involve more thinking. It means
slapping your hand every time it tries to hit 'CTRL' and 'i' and
sitting there for a bit longer staring at the screen. It means
playing around with sentence structure and layout. It means choosing
words more carefully so the reader can 'hear' the emphasis right
where you want it.
Let's pick up that book again. We'll turn back the pages until we
find that scene with Angie. Then we'll stare at the keyboard for a
bit until we can think of a way to show Angie's anger and hurt
without all those italics. (And preferably without all those
exclamation marks too!!!!)
The key is to feel what Angie is feeling. Don't just show her
angry words. Blend her words with her thoughts and actions so the
reader knows exactly how she feels. Sometimes, it might work to set
a word or a sentence off on a line by itself.
Okay. Let's experiment.
Angie stared at him. She had never felt rage this intense: it
literally paralysed her. Who did he think he was? Mike Tyson?
She had better things to do with her life than put up with
Gingerly touching her throbbing jaw, she swallowed. It took her a
few moments to get the words out, in a rasping whisper that sounded
nothing like her. "You'd better get yourself out of here. Right
He sneered and took a step forward. She held up a hand to stop
him, her eyes blazing.
Something he saw in her face made him pause.
"Now. Out. I've had enough."
No doubt, with more experimenting and more polishing, we could
improve this a great deal. But even as it stands, it's a lot better
than the original version. By leaving out the italics and exploring
Angie's feelings more, we have achieved a much more powerful piece
Play around with this yourself. Next time you're editing a scene,
take another look at your use of italics. Can you improve it? Can
you find ways to italicize without italics? Chances are, you'll end
up with a stronger narrative.
Wake your readers up. Get them involved. Don't lose them by
bombarding them with italics!
Coming Next Month:
Italics 101, Part 2: Using Italics To Show
© Marg McAlister
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